I would like to discuss a reversal released recently. It was documented as
And I shall be killed, and is spoken by Donald Trump. One group considered it to be ‘killed’, and others considered it to be ‘healed’.
In the forward speech he says ‘great people’. The contentious word is behind ‘great’.
RS is very much about speech perception (which is also true for FS). Here, what is happening phonetically is that a vowel is being produced in the area of the target point in the FS word ‘great’. Trump’s tongue is rising towards articulation at the alveolar ridge so as to produce [t]. However, assimilation occurs with the following [p] in ‘people’, that is, rather than the tongue completing articulation with the alveolar ridge, articulation moves straight to a labial one [p].
But going back to the vowel … there are three short vowel sounds occurring. Working in reverse of the forward speech, a short vowel sound as in ‘bit’ is produced, followed by an [a]. This comes from the diphthong vowel produced in ’great’. Following that, is a high back [oo] as a result of the [r] in the forward speech (The onset of [r] after [g] produces some rounding of the mouth). The [oo] gives a sense of [l] in reverse through the position of the tongue.
The continuous vocalic signal helps to give people the perception of a [h]. There is no hard [k]. In regard to [k], the closest consonant to it in the FS is the [t] in ‘great’. When the primary acoustic or phonetic cue that causes people to hear a [t] is missing, one may hear [k] or alternatively [p] in its place. In fact, this type of event is probably an important part of RS. It is possible that a key frequency formant of the vowel occurring at the target is within the perception zone of a k + vowel combination. There is also a ramping up of energy at the onset of the vowel in the RS, which contributes to perception of a ‘burst’. These are possible reasons why some hear [k].
If you listen to the larger forward speech section in reverse, following the contentious word (or beginning where the (ed) is documented) is the [g] in the forward speech.This produces a nasal [ng] sound in reverse. Following that, sounds like ‘miss me’, however ‘me’ is actually ‘ve’. Listening to the whole section, the nasal sound seems to disappear.
Without ‘miss (v)e’ you can hear the nasal sound